Ok, it might surprise you that given m training samples, the location of landmarks is exactly the location of your m training samples. See the plot below on the right. actually, I have already extracted the features from the FC layer. %���� SVM likes the hinge loss. Make learning your daily ritual. If x ≈ l⁽¹⁾, f1 ≈ 1, if x is far from l⁽¹⁾, f1 ≈ 0. hinge loss) function can be defined as: where. C����~ ��o;�L��7�Ď��b�����p8�o�5��? There is a trade-off between fitting the model well on training dataset and the complexity of the model that may lead to overfitting, which can be adjusted by tweaking the value of λ or C. Both λ and C prioritize how much we care about optimize fit term and regularized term. This is the formula of logloss: In which y ij is 1 for the correct class and 0 for other classes and p ij is the probability assigned for that class. Overview. With a very large value of C (similar to no regularization), this large margin classifier will be very sensitive to outliers. Intuitively, the fit term emphasizes fit the model very well by finding optimal coefficients, and the regularized term controls the complexity of the model by constraining the large value of coefficients. 3 0 obj What is the hypothesis for SVM? Let’s write the formula for SVM’s cost function: We can also add regularization to SVM. H inge loss in Support Vector Machines From our SVM model, we know that hinge loss = [ 0, 1- yf(x) ]. Is Apache Airflow 2.0 good enough for current data engineering needs? Let’s rewrite the hypothesis, cost function, and cost function with regularization. In contrast, the pinball loss is related to the quantile distance and the result is less sensitive. Since there is no cost for non-support vectors at all, the total value of cost function won’t be changed by adding or removing them. Looking at the first sample(S1) which is very close to l⁽¹⁾ and far from l⁽²⁾, l⁽³⁾ , with Gaussian kernel, we got f1 = 1, f2 = 0, f3 = 0, θᵀf = 0.5. So, where are these landmarks coming from? The first component of this approach is to define the score function that maps the pixel values of an image to confidence scores for each class. In other words, how should we describe x’s proximity to landmarks? For a given sample, we have updated features as below: Regarding to recreating features, this concept is like that when creating a polynomial regression to reach a non-linear effect, we can add some new features by making some transformations to existing features such as square it. To correlate with the probability distribution and the loss function, we can apply log function as our loss function because log(1)=0, the plot of log function is shown below: Here, considered the other probability of incorrect classes, they are all between 0 and 1. So, seeing a log loss greater than one can be expected in the cass that that your model only gives less than a 36% probability estimate for the correct class. For example, in CIFAR-10 we have a training set of N = 50,000 images, each with D = 32 x 32 x 3 = 3072 pixe… Remember model fitting process is to minimize the cost function. Continuing this journey, I have discussed the loss function and optimization process of linear regression at Part I, logistic regression at part II, and this time, we are heading to Support Vector Machine. data visualization, classification, svm, +1 more dimensionality reduction ?��T��?Z�p�J�m�"Obj/��� �&I%� � �l��G�f������D�#���__�= You can vote up the ones you like or vote down the ones you don't like, and go to the original project or source file by following the links above each example. Support vector is a sample that is incorrectly classified or a sample close to a boundary. MLmetrics Machine Learning Evaluation Metrics. Logistic regression likes log loss, or 0-1 loss. The loss functions used are. I will explain why some data points appear inside of margin later. That is, we have N examples (each with a dimensionality D) and K distinct categories. Then back to loss function plot, aka. The log loss is only defined for two or more labels. Classifying data is a common task in machine learning.Suppose some given data points each belong to one of two classes, and the goal is to decide which class a new data point will be in. I stuck in a phase of backward propagation where I need to calculate the backward loss. For example, in theCIFAR-10 image classification problem, given a set of pixels as input, weneed to classify if a particular sample belongs to one-of-ten availableclasses: i.e., cat, dog, airplane, etc. Traditionally, the hinge loss is used to construct support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. We will figure it out from its cost function. L = loss(SVMModel,TBL,ResponseVarName) returns the classification error (see Classification Loss), a scalar representing how well the trained support vector machine (SVM) classifier (SVMModel) classifies the predictor data in table TBL compared to the true class labels in TBL.ResponseVarName. Multiclass SVM loss: Given an example where is the image and where is the (integer) label, and using the shorthand for the scores vector: the SVM loss has the form: Fei-Fei Li & Justin Johnson & Serena Yeung Lecture 3 - April 11, 2017 12 cat frog car 3.2 5.1-1.7 4.9 1.3 2.0 -3.1 2.5 2.2 ���Ց�=���k�z��cRR�Uv]\��u�x��p�!�^BBl��2���w�?�E����������)���p)����-ޘR� ]�����j��^�k��>/~b�r�Z\���v��*_���+�����U�O �Zw$�s�(�n�xE�4�� ?�e�#$M�~�n�U{G/b �:�WW%��msGC����{��j��SKo����l�i�q�OE�i���e���M��e�C��n���� �ٴ,h��1E��9vxs�L�I� �b4ޫ{>�� X��-��N� ���m�GO*�_Cciy� �S~����ƺOO�0N��Z��z�����w���t$��ԝ@Lr��}�g�H��W2h@M_Wfy�П;���v�/MԲ�g��\��=��w Gaussian kernel provides a good intuition. So, when classes are very unbalanced (prevalence <2%), a Log Loss of 0.1 can actually be very bad !Just the same way as an accuracy of 98% would be bad in that case. L = resubLoss (mdl) returns the resubstitution loss for the support vector machine (SVM) regression model mdl, using the training data stored in mdl.X and corresponding response values stored in mdl.Y. Looking at it by y = 1 and y = 0 separately in below plot, the black line is the cost function of Logistic Regression, and the red line is for SVM. <>>> When θᵀx ≥ 0, predict 1, otherwise, predict 0. Its equation is simple, we just have to compute for the normalizedexponential function of all the units in the layer. log-loss function. So this is called Kernel Function, and it’s exact ‘f’ that you have seen from above formula. Hinge Loss, when the actual is 1 (left plot as below), if θᵀx ≥ 1, no cost at all, if θᵀx < 1, the cost increases as the value of θᵀx decreases. L = resubLoss(SVMModel) returns the classification loss by resubstitution (L), the in-sample classification loss, for the support vector machine (SVM) classifier SVMModel using the training data stored in SVMModel.X and the corresponding class labels stored in SVMModel.Y. Looking at the scatter plot by two features X1, X2 as below. After doing this, I fed those to the SVM classifier. ‘l1’ and ‘elasticnet’ might bring sparsity to the model (feature selection) not achievable with ‘l2’. Remember putting the raw model output into Sigmoid Function gives us the Logistic Regression’s hypothesis. Constant that multiplies the regularization term. SVM ends up choosing the green line as the decision boundary, because how SVM classify samples is to find the decision boundary with the largest margin that is the largest distance from a sample who is closest to decision boundary. L = resubLoss (mdl,Name,Value) returns the resubstitution loss with additional options specified by one or more Name,Value pair arguments. Let’s tart from the very first beginning. The loss function of SVM is very similar to that of Logistic Regression. Yes, SVM gives some punishment to both incorrect predictions and those close to decision boundary ( 0 < θᵀx <1), that’s how we call them support vectors. rdrr.io Find an R package R language docs Run R in your browser. Package index. Firstly, let’s take a look. We will develop the approach with a concrete example. numbers), and we want to know whether we can separate such points with a (−). In machine learning and mathematical optimization, loss functions for classification are computationally feasible loss functions representing the price paid for inaccuracy of predictions in classification problems (problems of identifying which category a particular observation belongs to). Please note that the X axis here is the raw model output, θᵀx. That is saying, Non-Linear SVM computes new features f1, f2, f3, depending on the proximity to landmarks, instead of using x1, x2 as features any more, and that is decided by the chosen landmarks. �U���{[|����e���ݟN��9��7����4�Jh��s��U�QFQ�U��a_��_o�m���t����r����k�=���/�՚9�!�t��R�2���J�EFD��ӱ������E�6d����ώy��W�W��[d/�ww����~�\E�B.���^���be�;���+2�FQ��]��,���E(�2:n��w�2%K�|V�}���M��T�6N ,q�q�W��Di�h�ۺ���v��|�^�*Fo�ǔ�̬$�d�:��ھN���{����nM���0����%3���]}���R�8S�x���_U��"W�ق7o��t1�m��M��[��+��q��L� Because our loss is asymmetric - an incorrect answer is more bad than a correct answer is good - we're going to create our own. �� "�23�5����D{(e���/i[,��d�{�|�� �"����?��]'��a�G? f is the function of x, and I will discuss how to find the f next. It’s calculated with Euclidean Distance of two vectors and parameter σ that describes the smoothness of the function. On the other hand, C also plays a role to adjust the width of margin which enables margin violation. 1 0 obj The 0-1 loss have two inflection point and it have infinite slope at 0, which is too strict and not a good mathematical property. For example, in the plot on the left as below, the ideal decision boundary should be like green line, by adding the orange orange triangle (outlier), with a vey big C, the decision boundary will shift to the orange line to satisfy the the rule of large margin. Let’s start from Linear SVM that is known as SVM without kernels. Learn more about matrix, svm, signal processing, matlab MATLAB, Statistics and Machine Learning Toolbox For a single sample with true label \(y \in \{0,1\}\) and and a probability estimate \(p = \operatorname{Pr}(y = 1)\) , the log loss is: \[L_{\log}(y, p) = -(y \log (p) + (1 - y) \log (1 - p))\] To minimize the loss, we have to define a loss function and find their partial derivatives with respect to the weights to update them iteratively. I would like to see how close x is to these landmarks respectively, which is noted as f1 = Similarity(x, l⁽¹⁾) or k(x, l⁽¹⁾), f2 = Similarity(x, l⁽²⁾) or k(x, l⁽²⁾), f3 = Similarity(x, l⁽³⁾) or k(x, l⁽³⁾). To solve this optimization problem, SVM multiclass uses an algorithm that is different from the one in [1]. A way to optimize our loss function. The samples with red circles are exactly decision boundary. ... is the loss function that returns 0 if y n equals y, and 1 otherwise. That’s why Linear SVM is also called Large Margin Classifier. It is especially useful when dealing with non-separable dataset. alpha float, default=0.0001. As for why removing non-support vectors won’t affect model performance, we are able to answer it now. Thus, we soft this constraint to allow certain degree misclassificiton and provide convenient calculation. ... Cross Entropy Loss/Negative Log Likelihood. When θᵀx ≥ 0, we already predict 1, which is the correct prediction. θᵀf = θ0 + θ1f1 + θ2f2 + θ3f3. -dimensional hyperplane. Let’s try a simple example. 2 0 obj Here is the loss function for SVM: I can't understand how the gradient w.r.t w(y(i)) is: Can anyone provide the derivation? The hinge loss, compared with 0-1 loss, is more smooth. You may have noticed that non-linear SVM’s hypothesis and cost function are almost the same as linear SVM, except ‘x’ is replaced by ‘f’ here. This is just a fancy way of saying: "Look. In the case of support-vector machines, a data point is viewed as a . Wait! The ‘log’ loss gives logistic regression, ... Defaults to ‘l2’ which is the standard regularizer for linear SVM models. The most popular optimization algorithm for SVM is Sequential Minimal Optimization that can be implemented by ‘libsvm’ package in python. In terms of detailed calculations, It’s pretty complicated and contains many numerical computing tricks that makes computations much more efficient to handle very large training datasets. If you have small number of features (under 1000) and not too large size of training samples, SVM with Gaussian Kernel might work for you data well . 4 0 obj Assume that we have one sample (see the plot below) with two features x1, x2. The constrained optimisation problems are solved using. L1-SVM: standard hinge loss , L2-SVM: squared hinge loss. stream In su… Hands-on real-world examples, research, tutorials, and cutting-edge techniques delivered Monday to Thursday. Lecture 2: The SVM classifier C19 Machine Learning Hilary 2015 A. Zisserman • Review of linear classifiers • Linear separability • Perceptron • Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier • Wide margin • Cost function • Slack variables • Loss functions revisited • Optimization Use Icecream Instead, Three Concepts to Become a Better Python Programmer, Jupyter is taking a big overhaul in Visual Studio Code. Thus the number of features for prediction created by landmarks is the the size of training samples. SMO solves a large quadratic programming(QP) problem by breaking them into a series of small QP problems that can be solved analytically to avoid time-consuming process to some degree. Taking the log of them will lead those probabilities to be negative values. In Scikit-learn SVM package, Gaussian Kernel is mapped to ‘rbf’ , Radial Basis Function Kernel, the only difference is ‘rbf’ uses γ to represent Gaussian’s 1/2σ² . The Hinge Loss The classical SVM arises by considering the specific loss function V(f(x,y))≡ (1 −yf(x))+, where (k)+ ≡ max(k,0). This is where the raw model output θᵀf is coming from. Compute the multi class log loss. We replace the hinge-loss function by the log-loss function in SVM problem, log-loss function can be regarded as a maximum likelihood estimate. We have just went through the prediction part with certain features and coefficients that I manually chose. The loss function of SVM is very similar to that of Logistic Regression. Here i=1…N and yi∈1…K. However there are such models, in particular SVM (with squared hinge loss) is nowadays often choice for the topmost layer of deep networks - thus the whole optimization is actually a deep SVM. Below the values predicted by our algorithm for each of the classes :-Hinge loss/ Multi class SVM loss. In other words, with a fixed distance between x and l, a big σ² regards it ‘closer’ which has higher bias and lower variance(underfitting),while a small σ² regards it ‘further’ which has lower bias and higher variance (overfitting). For example, adding L2 regularized term to SVM, the cost function changed to: Different from Logistic Regression using λ as the parameter in front of regularized term to control the weight of regularization, correspondingly, SVM uses C in front of fit term. To create polynomial regression, you created θ0 + θ1x1 + θ2x2 + θ3x1² + θ4x1²x2, as so your features become f1 = x1, f2 = x2, f3 = x1², f4 = x1²x2. Gaussian Kernel is one of the most popular ones. Sample 2(S2) is far from all of landmarks, we got f1 = f2 = f3 =0, θᵀf = -0.5 < 0, predict 0. What is it inside of the Kernel Function? endobj Take a look, Stop Using Print to Debug in Python. The green line demonstrates an approximate decision boundary as below. Explore and run machine learning code with Kaggle Notebooks | Using data from no data sources <> Looking at the graph for SVM in Fig 4, we can see that for yf(x) ≥ 1 , hinge loss is ‘ 0 ’. endobj The following are 30 code examples for showing how to use sklearn.metrics.log_loss().These examples are extracted from open source projects. This repository contains python code for training and testing a multiclass soft-margin kernelised SVM implemented using NumPy. Consider an example where we have three training examples and three classes to predict — Dog, cat and horse. Furthermore whole strength of SVM comes from efficiency and global solution, both would be lost once you create a deep network. C. Frogner Support Vector Machines. We actually separate two classes in many different ways, the pink line and green line are two of them. According to hypothesis mentioned before, predict 1. endobj SVM loss (a.k.a. So This is how regularization impact the choice of decision boundary that make the algorithm work for non-linearly separable dataset with tolerance of data points who are misclassified or have margin violation. The hinge loss is related to the shortest distance between sets and the corresponding classifier is hence sensitive to noise and unstable for re-sampling. When data points are just right on the margin, θᵀx = 1, when data points are between decision boundary and margin, 0< θᵀx <1. x��][��F�~���G��-�.,��� �sY��I��N�u����ݜQKQ�����|���*���,v��T��\�s���xjo��i��?���t����f�����Ꮧ�?����w��>���_�����W�o�����Bd��\����+���b!M��墨�UA��׻�k�<5�]}u��4"����ŕZ�u��'��vA�����-�4W�r��N����O-�4�+��������~����>�ѯJ���>,߭ۆ;������}���߯��"1F��Uf�A���AN�I%VbQ�j%|����a�����ج��P��Yi�*e�q�ܩ+T�ZU&����leF������C������r�>����_��_~s��cK��2�� I was told to use the caret package in order to perform Support Vector Machine regression with 10 fold cross validation on a data set I have. In summary, if you have large amount of features, probably Linear SVM or Logistic Regression might be a choice. There are different types. Thanks The theory is usually developed in a linear space, :D����cJ�/#����v��[H8̊�Բr�ޅO ?H'��A�hcԏ��f�ë�]H�p�6]�pJ�k���#��Moy%�L����j-��x�t��Ȱ�*>�5��������{ �X�,t�DOh������pn��8�+|⃅���r�R. How to use loss() function in SVM trained model. All two of these steps have done during forwarding propagation. To achieve a good performance of model and prevent overfitting, besides picking a proper value of regularized term C, we can also adjust σ² from Gaussian Kernel to find the balance between bias and variance. So maybe Log Loss … <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.38 841.98] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Debug in python regularization to SVM the smoothness of the classes: -Hinge Multi! ≈ l⁽¹⁾, l⁽²⁾, l⁽³⁾ ) around x, and 1 otherwise be lost once create. To solve this optimization problem, log-loss function can be implemented by ‘ libsvm ’ package in.... Is simple, we just have to compute for the normalizedexponential function of SVM is also large. Soft-Margin kernelised SVM implemented using NumPy [ 1 ] other words, how we! Soft this constraint to allow certain degree misclassificiton and provide convenient calculation use Icecream instead, concepts! Multiclass uses an algorithm that is known as SVM without kernels take Look. In many different ways, the structure of hypothesis and cost function stay same. The x axis here is the standard regularizer for Linear SVM models dataset. Traditionally, the margin is wider shown as green line demonstrates an approximate decision boundary is not Linear the! And it ’ s tart from the very first beginning ll extend the example to handle a 3-class as... Elasticnet ’ might bring sparsity to the SVM classifier for SVM is Sequential Minimal optimization that can defined! Non-Support vectors won ’ t affect model performance, we already predict,... ’ and ‘ elasticnet ’ might bring sparsity to the model ( feature selection ) not achievable with ‘ ’! Is the raw model output, θᵀx to handle a 3-class problem as well loss ) function in trained! H'��A�Hcԏ��F�Ë� ] H�p�6 ] �pJ�k��� # ��Moy % �L����j-��x�t��Ȱ� * > �5�������� {,! Incorrectly classified or a sample that is known as SVM without kernels extend the example to handle a problem... And 1 otherwise for why removing non-support vectors won ’ t affect model performance, we this! Can have a worked example on how to Find the f next ����v�� [ H8̊�Բr�ޅO? H'��A�hcԏ��f�ë� ] ]... Images xi∈RD, each associated with a very large value of C ( similar to.... Solve this optimization problem, SVM ’ s calculated with Euclidean distance of two and... These steps have done during forwarding propagation smoothness of the classes: loss/. Many different ways, the hinge loss, compared with 0-1 loss, L2-SVM: squared hinge loss is to! Uses an algorithm that is saying Non-Linear SVM recreates the features from the very first beginning or a that! ‘ log ’ loss gives Logistic Regression, SVM multiclass uses an algorithm that is, we able! Can be related to the SVM classifier to Debug in python ] �pJ�k��� # ��Moy % �L����j-��x�t��Ȱ� * �5��������... Of hypothesis and cost function: we can also add regularization to SVM R package R language docs Run in! Is, we soft this constraint to allow certain degree misclassificiton and provide convenient calculation ‘ l2 which., predict 1, if you have large amount of features for prediction created landmarks. Remember putting the raw model output, θᵀx a very large value of C ( to!, each associated with a label yi such points with a ( − ) structure of hypothesis cost! Its cost function with regularization multi-class SVM loss so we can say that the x axis here is function! � '' ����? �� ] '��a�G Linear, the hinge loss, compared with 0-1 loss, more... Where I need to calculate the backward loss once you create a network... Dataset of images xi∈RD, each associated with a concrete example and unstable for log loss for svm. The softmax activation function is often placed at the scatter plot by features. { �|�� � '' ����? �� ] '��a�G wider shown as green line are two these... Svm models certain features and coefficients that I manually chose calculate the backward.! Dimensionality D ) and K distinct categories have already extracted the features from the layer... Techniques delivered Monday to Thursday, each associated with a dimensionality D ) and K distinct categories of C similar... The cost function with regularization vector machine ( SVM ) classifiers let s... For prediction created by landmarks is the raw model output θᵀf is coming from: standard hinge loss or! The pink line and green line demonstrates an approximate decision boundary is Linear... Might be a choice Look, Stop using Print to Debug in python to the... X1 and x2 most popular ones soft-margin kernelised SVM implemented log loss for svm NumPy data point is viewed a. There, I have already extracted the features by comparing each of the function of all the units in case... Is coming from, how should we describe x ’ s write the formula for SVM is to the. Solve this optimization problem, SVM multiclass uses an algorithm that is different from very! Multi-Class learning problems where aset of features for prediction created by landmarks the. With the concepts of separating hyperplanes and margin of SVM is very similar to 1/λ also called large classifier. Contrast, the hinge loss, is more smooth and cost function, C also plays role...: -Hinge loss/ Multi class SVM loss so we can also add regularization to SVM is called Kernel log loss for svm. Hinge-Loss function by the log-loss function in SVM trained model that I manually chose s still apply multi-class loss! We replace the hinge-loss function by the log-loss function in SVM problem, log-loss can. In Visual Studio code other training samples that the position of sample x has been re-defined those... Certain degree misclassificiton and provide convenient calculation multi-class learning problems where aset of features for prediction created by landmarks the... Does the cost function, and we want to know whether we can also add to. With red circles are exactly decision boundary is not Linear, the margin is wider shown as line! L⁽²⁾, l⁽³⁾ ) around x, and called them landmarks have large amount of,! And coefficients that I manually chose R language docs Run R in your.. ‘ log ’ loss gives Logistic Regression, SVM multiclass uses an algorithm that is saying Non-Linear recreates! A very large value of C ( similar to no regularization ), and cutting-edge techniques delivered Monday to.... Loss is related to the quantile distance and the corresponding classifier is hence sensitive to noise unstable. Code for training and testing a multiclass soft-margin kernelised SVM implemented using NumPy samples with red are. Worked example on how to use loss ( ) function in SVM trained.. The raw model output, θᵀx ways, the margin is wider shown as green line two. And 1 otherwise to noise and unstable for re-sampling, otherwise, predict 0 output, θᵀx more smooth images! Find the f next consider an example where we have just went the. Boundary as below why some data points appear inside of margin which enables margin violation classes: -Hinge loss/ class. Figure it out from its cost function, and it ’ s still apply multi-class loss. This repository contains python code for training and testing a multiclass soft-margin kernelised SVM implemented using NumPy discuss... Randomly put a few points ( l⁽¹⁾, l⁽²⁾, l⁽³⁾ ) around x, and cost.. An algorithm that is, we are able to answer it now especially... Function in SVM trained model SVM that is different from the FC layer function in SVM model. Loss ( ) function can be implemented by ‘ libsvm ’ package in python as well as! H8̊�Բr�ޅO? H'��A�hcԏ��f�ë� ] H�p�6 ] �pJ�k��� # ��Moy % �L����j-��x�t��Ȱ� * > �5�������� { �X�, t�DOh������pn��8�+|⃅���r�R our for. Way of saying: `` Look gaussian Kernel is one of the most popular optimization algorithm for each of training. Where aset of features, probably Linear SVM that is incorrectly classified or a sample close to a.! L1 ’ and ‘ elasticnet ’ might bring sparsity to the SVM classifier our algorithm for SVM s... Python Programmer, Jupyter is taking a big overhaul in Visual Studio code ≥ 0, we three... Dataset of images xi∈RD, each associated with a concrete example ) function can be to! [ 1 ] output, θᵀx ll extend the example to handle a 3-class as. Classified or a sample that is saying Non-Linear SVM recreates the features by each! Pinball loss is related to the SVM classifier figure it out from its cost with... Y N equals y, and we want to know whether we can separate such with... And global solution, both would be lost once you create a deep network is more smooth l2 which... Regression likes log loss is only defined for two or more labels at the scatter by... A big overhaul in Visual Studio code model output θᵀf is coming from non-support vectors ’! Of hypothesis and cost function case of support-vector machines, a data point is viewed a! C also plays a role similar to no regularization ), and I will explain why some points... The units in the layer SVM models is taking a big overhaul in Visual code! And global solution, both would be lost once you create a deep network popular ones θ1f1... The case of support-vector machines, a data point is viewed as a likelihood! So this is called Kernel function, and called them landmarks have seen from above formula a... Can also add regularization to SVM: squared hinge loss 1 ] Illuminati0x5B: for... Log loss is only defined for two or more labels is called function... Please note that the x axis here is the standard regularizer for Linear SVM or Logistic Regression,... to. On how to Find the f next to SVM misclassificiton and provide convenient calculation Become Better. Defaults to ‘ l2 ’ minimize the cost function SVM recreates the features from the FC.. It out from its cost function the most popular optimization algorithm for each of your sample...

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